Barbara Stanwyck (July 16, 1907 – January 20, 1990) was an Academy Award nominated American actress. She was a film and television star, known during her 60-year career as a consummate and versatile professional with a strong, realistic screen presence, and a favorite of directors including Cecil B. DeMille, Fritz Lang and Frank Capra. After a short but notable career as a stage actress in the late 1920s, she made 85 films in 38 years in Hollywood, before turning to television.
Orphaned at the aged of four and partially raised in foster homes, by 1944, Stanwyck was the highest paid woman in the United States. She was nominated for the Academy Award four times, and won three Emmy Awards and a Golden Globe. She was the recipient of honorary lifetime awards from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1981, the American Film Institute in 1987, the Film Society of Lincoln Center, the Golden Globes, the Los Angeles Film Critics Association, and the Screen Actors Guild. Stanwyck has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and is ranked as the 11th greatest female star of all time by the American Film Institute.<ref>"AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars." American Film Institute. Retrieved: November 17, 2011.</ref> Template:TOC limit
Barbara Stanwyck was born Ruby Catherine Stevens in Brooklyn, New York on July 16, 1907.<ref name="Madsen8">Madsen 1994, p. 8.</ref> Ruby Stevens was the fifth and youngest child of Catherine Ann (née McPhee) and Byron E. Stevens; the couple were working-class, her father a native of Massachusetts and her mother an immigrant from Nova Scotia, Canada.<ref>Callahan 2012, pp. 5–6.</ref><ref>"Ruby Catherine Stevens “Barbara Stanwyck”. Rootsweb; retrieved April 17, 2012.</ref> Ruby was of English and Scottish ancestry, by her father and mother, respectively.<ref name="Madsen8"/> When she was four, her mother was killed when a drunken stranger pushed her off a moving streetcar.<ref name="Callahan p. 6">Callahan 2012, p. 6.</ref> Two weeks after the funeral, Byron Stevens joined a work crew digging the Panama canal and was never seen again.<ref name="Madsen9">Madsen 1994, p. 9.</ref> Ruby and her brother Byron were raised by their elder sister Mildred, who was five years older than Ruby.<ref name="Madsen9"/> When Mildred got a job as a John Cort showgirl, Ruby and Byron were placed in a series of foster homes (as many as four in a year), from which Ruby often ran away.<ref name="Nas">Nassour and Snowberger 2000. Template:Page needed</ref>Unknown extension tag "ref"
"I knew that after fourteen I'd have to earn my own living, but I was willing to do that ... I've always been a little sorry for pampered people, and of course, they're 'very' sorry for me."
|Barbara Stanwyck, 1937<ref name="M12"/>|
During the summers of 1916 and 1917, Ruby toured with Mildred, and practiced her sister's routines backstage.<ref name="M10"/> Another influence toward performing was watching the movies of Pearl White, whom Ruby idolized.<ref>Callahan 2012, p. 222.</ref> At age 14, she dropped out of school to take a job wrapping packages at a department store in Brooklyn.<ref name="Prono240">Prono 2008, p. 240.</ref> Ruby never attended high school, "although early biographical thumbnail sketches had her attend Brooklyn's famous Erasmus Hall High School".<ref>Madsen 1994, p. 11.</ref> Soon after, she took a job filing cards at the Brooklyn telephone office for a salary of $14 a week, a salary that allowed her to become financially independent.<ref>Madsen 1994, pp. 11–12.</ref> She disliked both jobs; her real interest was to enter show business even as her sister Mildred discouraged the idea. She next took a job cutting dress patterns for Vogue, but because customers complained about her work, she was fired.<ref name="M12">Madsen 1994, p. 12.</ref> Her next job was as a typist for the Jerome H. Remick Music Company, a job she reportedly enjoyed. But her continuing ambition was to work in show business and her sister finally gave up trying to dissuade her.<ref>Madsen 1994, pp. 12–13.</ref>
Ziegfeld girl and Broadway success
In 1923, a few months short of her 16th birthday, Ruby auditioned for a place in the chorus at the Strand Roof, a night club over the Strand Theatre in Times Square.<ref>Madsen 1994, p. 13.</ref> A few months later, she obtained a job as a dancer in the 1922 and 1923 seasons of the Ziegfeld Follies, dancing at the New Amsterdam Theater. "I just wanted to survive and eat and have a nice coat", Stanwyck said.<ref name=Callahan>Callahan 2012, p. 9.</ref><ref name="Prono241">Prono 2008, p. 241.</ref> For the next several years, she worked as a chorus girl, performing from midnight to seven a.m. at nightclubs owned by Texas Guinan. She also occasionally served as a dance instructor at a speakeasy for gays and lesbians owned by Guinan.<ref>Madsen 1994, pp. 17–18.</ref> One of her good friends during those years was pianist Oscar Levant, who described her as being "wary of sophisticates and phonies."<ref name=Callahan/>
In 1926, Ruby was introduced to Willard Mack by Billy LaHiff who owned a popular pub frequented by showpeople.<ref>Madsen 1994, p. 21.</ref> Mack was casting his play The Noose and LaHiff suggested that the part of the chorus girl be played by a real chorus girl. Mack agreed and gave the part to Ruby after a successful audition.<ref>Madsen 1994, p. 22.</ref> She co-starred with actors Rex Cherryman and Wilfred Lucas.<ref>Wayne 2009, p. 17.</ref> The play was not a success.<ref name="M26" /> In an effort to improve it, Mack decided to expand Ruby's part to include more pathos.<ref>Madsen 1994, p. 25.</ref> The Noose re-opened on October 20, 1926 and became one of the most successful plays of the season, running on Broadway for nine months and 197 performances.<ref name="Prono241" /> At the suggestion of either Mack or David Belasco, Ruby changed her name to Barbara Stanwyck by combining her character's first name, Barbara Frietchie, and Stanwyck, after the name of another actress in the play, Jane Stanwyck.<ref name="M26">Madsen 1994, p. 26.</ref>
Stanwyck became a Broadway star soon after when she was cast in her first leading role in the production of Burlesque (1927). She got rave reviews and it was a huge hit.<ref>Smith 1985, p. 8.</ref> As film actor, Pat O'Brien, would later say on a talk show in the 1960s: “The greatest Broadway show I ever saw was a play in the 1920s called ‘Burlesque'.” In Arthur Hopkins‘ autobiography, To a Lonely Boy, he speaks of how he came about casting her: “After some search for the girl, I interviewed a night-club dancer who had just scored in a small emotional part in a play that did not run (The Noose). She seemed to have the quality I wanted, a sort of rough poignancy. She at once displayed more sensitive, easily expressed emotion than I had encountered since Pauline Lord. She and (Hal) Skelly were the perfect team, and they made the play a great success. I had great plans for her, but the Hollywood offers kept coming. There was no competing with them. She became a picture star. She is Barbara Stanwyck.” He also describes Stanwyck, in the book, as “the greatest natural actress of our time” and noting with sadness that “One of the theater’s great potential actresses was embalmed in celluloid.”<ref>Hopkins 1937 Template:Page needed</ref>
Around this time, Stanwyck was summoned by film producer Bob Kane to make a screen test for his upcoming 1927 silent film Broadway Nights. She lost the lead role because she could not cry in the screen test but got a minor part as a fan dancer. This was Stanwyck's first film appearance.<ref>"Barbara Stanwyck." Arabella-and-co.com. Retrieved: June 19, 2012.</ref>
While playing in Burlesque, Stanwyck had been introduced to her future husband, actor Frank Fay, by Oscar Levant.<ref>Wayne 2009, p. 20.</ref> Stanwyck's and Fay's relationship developed into a romance and they married on August 26, 1928. They soon moved to Hollywood.<ref name="Nas"/>
Stanwyck's first sound film was The Locked Door (1929), followed by Mexicali Rose released in the same year. Neither film was successful; nonetheless, Frank Capra chose Stanwyck for his Ladies of Leisure (1930).<ref name="Prono241" /> Numerous prominent roles followed, among them the children's nurse who saves two little girls from being gradually starved to death by a vicious Clark Gable in Night Nurse (1931), "Shopworn" 1932, "the ambitious woman from "the wrong side of the tracks" in Baby Face (1933), the self-sacrificing title character in Stella Dallas (1937), Molly Monahan in Union Pacific (1939) with Joel McCrea, the con artist who falls for her would-be victim (played by Henry Fonda) in The Lady Eve (1941), a nightclub performer who gives a professor (played by Gary Cooper) understanding of "modern English" in the comedy "Ball of Fire" (1941); the woman who talks an infatuated insurance salesman (Fred McMurray) into killing her husband in Double Indemnity (1944), the columnist caught up in white lies and Christmas romance in Christmas in Connecticut (1945) and the doomed wife in Sorry, Wrong Number (1948). Stanwyck was reportedly one of the many actresses considered for the role of Scarlett O'Hara in Gone With The Wind (1939), although she did not receive a screen test. In 1944, Stanwyck was the highest-paid woman in the United States.<ref name="Prono241" />
"That is the kind of woman that makes whole civilizations topple."
|Kathleen Howard of Stanwyck's character in Ball of Fire<ref>Beifuss, John. "A Century of Stanwyck." The Commercial Appeal (Memphis, Tennessee), July 16, 2007.</ref>|
Pauline Kael described Stanwyck's acting, "[she] seems to have an intuitive understanding of the fluid physical movements that work best on camera" and in reference to her early 1930s film work, "early talkies sentimentality ... only emphasizes Stanwyck's remarkable modernism".<ref>Kael, Pauline. "Quotation of review of the film Ladies of Leisure". 5001 Nights At The Movies, 1991, p. 403.</ref>
Many of her roles involved strong characters and in Double Indemnity, Stanwyck brought out the cruel nature of the "grim, unflinching murderess", marking her as the "most notorious femme" in the film noir genre.<ref>Hannsberry 2009, p. 3.</ref> Yet Stanwyck was known for her accessibility and kindness to the backstage crew on any film set. She knew the names of their wives and children, and asked after them by name. Frank Capra said she was "destined to be beloved by all directors, actors, crews and extras. In a Hollywood popularity contest she would win first prize hands down."<ref name="Eyman">Eyman, Scott. "The Lady Stanwyck". The Palm Beach Post (Florida), July 15, 2007, p. 1J. Retrieved via Access World News: June 16, 2009.</ref>
William Holden and Stanwyck were friends of long standing. When Stanwyck and Holden were presenting the Best Sound Oscar, Holden paused to pay a special tribute to her for saving his career when Holden was cast in the lead for Golden Boy (1939). After a series of unsteady daily performances, he was about to be fired, but Stanwyck staunchly defended him, successfully standing up to the film producers. Shortly after Holden's death, Stanwyck recalled the moment when receiving her honorary Oscar: "A few years ago I stood on this stage with William Holden as a presenter. I loved him very much, and I miss him. He always wished that I would get an Oscar. And so tonight, my golden boy, you got your wish".<ref>Capua 2009, p. 165.</ref>
When Stanwyck's film career declined in 1957, she moved to television. Her Template:Ytv–Template:Ytv series The Barbara Stanwyck Show was not a ratings success but earned her first Emmy Award.<ref name="Prono241" /> The Template:Ytv–Template:Ytv Western series The Big Valley on ABC made her one of the most popular actresses on television, winning her another Emmy.<ref name="Prono241"/> She was billed as "Miss Barbara Stanwyck", and her role as frontier family matron Victoria Barkley was likened to that of Ben Cartwright, played by Lorne Greene in the series Bonanza. Stanwyck's costars included Richard Long as Jarrod Thomas Barkley, (who had been in the film All I Desire (1953) with Stanwyck), Peter Breck as the hot-headed Nick Barkley, Linda Evans as Audra Barkley, and Lee Majors as Heath Barkley, the son fathered out of wedlock by the Stanwyck character's husband with another woman.
Years later, Stanwyck earned her third Emmy for The Thorn Birds.<ref name="Prono241" /> In Template:Ytv, she made three guest appearances in the primetime soap opera Dynasty prior to the launch of its short-lived spin-off series, The Colbys in which she starred alongside Charlton Heston, Stephanie Beacham and Katharine Ross. Unhappy with the experience, Stanwyck remained with the series for only one season (it lasted for two), and her role as Constance Colby Patterson would prove to be her last.<ref name="Prono241" /> Earl Hamner Jr. (producer of The Waltons) had initially wanted Stanwyck for the lead role of Angela Channing on the successful 1980s soap opera Falcon Crest, but she turned it down and the role went to her best friend, Jane Wyman.
While playing in The Noose, Stanwyck fell in love with her co-star, Rex Cherryman, who became her fiancée in 1928.<ref name="Nas"/> Cherryman had become ill early in 1928 and his doctor advised him to take a sea voyage to Paris where he and Stanwyck had arranged to meet. While still at sea, he died of septic poisoning, at the age of 31.<ref>Madsen 1994, p. 32.</ref>
On August 26, 1928, Stanwyck married her Burlesque co-star, Frank Fay. She and Fay later claimed that they disliked each other at first, but became close after the sudden death of Cherryman.<ref name="Nas"/> After moving to Hollywood, they adopted a son, Dion Anthony "Tony" Fay, on December 5, 1932. The marriage was a troubled one. Fay's successful career on Broadway did not translate to the big screen, whereas Stanwyck achieved Hollywood stardom. Fay engaged in physical confrontations with his young wife, especially when he was inebriated.<ref>Wayne 2009, p. 37.</ref> Some claim that this union was the basis for A Star is Born.<ref name="Prono242">Prono 2008, p. 242.</ref> The couple divorced on December 30, 1935. Stanwyck won custody of their troubled adoptive son.<ref>Callahan 2012, p. 85.</ref>
In 1936, while making the film His Brother's Wife (1936), Stanwyck was paired with her co-star, Robert Taylor, who were also brought together off-screen through mutual friends. Following a whirlwind romance, the couple began living together. Stanwyck was hesitant to remarry after the failure of her first marriage. However, their 1939 marriage was rumored to have been arranged with the help of Taylor's studio MGM, a common practice in Hollywood's golden age. She and Taylor enjoyed time together outdoors during the early years of their marriage, and were the owners of acres of prime West Los Angeles property. Their large ranch and home in the Mandeville Canyon section of Brentwood, Los Angeles is still referred to by the locals as the old "Robert Taylor ranch".<ref>"The 10 most expensive homes in the US: 2005." Forbes, 2005. Retrieved: November 17, 2011.</ref>
In 1950, Stanwyck and Robert Taylor mutually decided to divorce and she proceeded with the official filing of divorce. There have been many rumors of the cause of their divorce, but according to several of their friends, they grew apart after World War II. Taylor had romantic affairs and Stanwyck was also rumored to have had some affairs, but nothing has been confirmed. After the divorce, they acted together in Stanwyck's last feature film, The Night Walker (1964). Stanwyck never remarried and cited him as the love of her life, according to her friend and costar, Linda Evans. She took his death in 1969 very hard and began a long break from film and television work.<ref>Callahan 2012, p. 77.</ref>
Stanwyck was one of the most well-liked actors in Hollywood and was friends with many of her co-stars and fellow actors (and crew members working on her films and TV series), including: Joel McCrea and his wife Frances Dee, George Brent, Robert Preston, Henry Fonda (who had a lifelong crush on her and a rumored affair), James Stewart, Linda Evans, Joan Crawford, Jack Benny and his wife Mary Livingstone, William Holden, Gary Cooper, Fred McMurray, and many others.<ref>Wayne 2009, pp. 146, 166.</ref>
Stanwyck reportedly had an affair with actor Robert Wagner, whom she met on the set of Titanic (1953). Wagner, who was 22, and Stanwyck, who was 45 at the beginning of the affair, had a four-year romance, which is described in Wagner's 2008 memoir, Pieces of My Heart.<ref>Wagner and Eyman 2008, p. 64.</ref> Stanwyck ended the relationship.<ref>King, Susan. "Wagner Memoir Tells of Wood Death, Stanwyck Affair." San Jose Mercury News (California) October 5, 2008, p. 6D. Retrieved: via Access World News: June 16, 2009.</ref> In the 1950s, Stanwyck also, reportedly, had a one-night-stand with the much younger, Farley Granger which he writes about in his memoir, Include Me Out: My Life from Goldwyn to Broadway.<ref>Granger and Calhoun 2007, p. 131.</ref> She was also rumored to have been bisexual, but, as of yet, no solid proof has come to light; unsubstantiated rumors also swirled about a lesbian relationship with her publicist, Helen Ferguson.<ref>Callahan 2012, p. 163.</ref><ref>Wayne 2009, p. 166.</ref>
Stanwyck was a conservative-minded Republican along with such contemporaries as William Holden, Ginger Rogers, Gary Cooper, John Wayne, Bob Hope, and her Double Indemnity co-star, Fred McMurray.<ref>Diorio 1984, p. 202.</ref><ref>"Barbara Stanwyck biography." IMDb. Retrieved: November 17, 2011.</ref><ref>Metzger 1989, p. 27.</ref>
Later years and death
Stanwyck's retirement years were active, with charity work outside the limelight. She was robbed and assaulted inside her Beverly Hills home in 1981. The following year, while filming The Thorn Birds, the inhalation of special-effects smoke on the set may have caused her to contract bronchitis. The illness was compounded by her cigarette habit; she had been a smoker from age nine until four years before her death.<ref name=People020590>Stark, John. "Barbara Stanwyck, "A Stand-Up Dame." The People, February 5, 1990. Retrieved: December 24, 2010.</ref>
Stanwyck died on January 20, 1990 of congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at age 82 at Saint John's Health Center. Her remains were cremated and the ashes scattered in Lone Pine, California.<ref>Flint, Peter B. "Barbara Stanwyck, Actress, Dead at 82." The New York Times, January 22, 1990, p. D11.</ref>
Awards and honors
- Academy Awards
- 1938 – Nominated, Best Actress in a Leading Role for Stella Dallas
- 1942 – Nominated, Best Actress in a Leading Role for Ball of Fire
- 1944 – Nominated, Best Actress in a Leading Role for Double Indemnity
- 1949 – Nominated, Best Actress in a Leading Role for Sorry, Wrong Number
- 1981 – Won, Academy Honorary Award "for superlative creativity and unique contribution to the art of screen acting"
- Emmy Awards
- 1961 – Won, Outstanding Performance by an Actress in a Series (Lead) for The Barbara Stanwyck Show
- 1966 – Won, Outstanding Continued Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role in a Dramatic Series for The Big Valley
- 1967 – Nominated, Outstanding Continued Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role in a Dramatic Series for The Big Valley
- 1968 – Nominated, Outstanding Continued Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role in a Dramatic Series for The Big Valley
- 1983 – Won, Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or a Special for The Thorn Birds
- Golden Globes
- 1966 – Nominated, Best TV Star – Female for The Big Valley
- 1967 – Nominated, Best TV Star – Female for The Big Valley
- 1968 – Nominated, Best TV Star – Female for The Big Valley
- 1984 – Won, Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role in a Series, Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for TV for The Thorn Birds
- 1986 – Won, Cecil B. DeMille Award
- Other awards
- 1941 – Hollywood Walk of Fame, star located at 1751 Vine Street
- 1967 – Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award
- 1973 – Western Performers Hall of Fame at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
- 1981 – Film Society of Lincoln Center Gala Tribute
- 1981 – Los Angeles Film Critics Association Career Achievement Award
- 1987 – American Film Institute Life Achievement Award
- Bachardy, Don. Stars in My Eyes. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000. ISBN 0-299-16730-5.
- Balio, Tino. Grand design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930-1939. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1995. ISBN 0-520-20334-8.
- Bosworth, Patricia. Jane Fonda: The Private Life of a Public Woman. New York: Houghton, Miffllin, Harcourt, 2011. ISBN 978-0-547-15257-8.
- Callahan, Dan. Barbara Stanwyck: The Miracle Woman. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2012. ISBN 978-1-61703-183-0.
- Capua, Michelangelo. William Holden: A Biography. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-7864-4440-3.
- Chierichetti, David and Edith Head. Edith Head: The Life and Times of Hollywood's Celebrated Costume Designer. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. ISBN 0-06-056740-6.
- Diorio, Al. Barbara Stanwyck: A Biography. New York: Coward, McCann, 1984. ISBN 978-0-698-11247-6.
- Granger, Farley and Robert Calhoun. Include Me Out: My Life from Goldwyn to Broadway. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-31235-773-3.
- Hall, Dennis. American Icons: An Encyclopedia of the People, Places, and Things that have Shaped our Culture. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. ISBN 0-275-98429-X.
- Hannsberry, Karen Burroughs. Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-78644-682-7.
- Hirsch, Foster. The Dark Side of the Screen: Film Noir. New York: Da Capo Press, 2008. ISBN 0-306-81772-1.
- Hopkins, Arthur. To a Lonely Boy. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., First edition 1937.
- Kael, Pauline. 5001 Nights At The Movies. New York: Henry Holt, 1991. ISBN 978-0-8050-1367-2.
- Lesser, Wendy. His Other Half: Men Looking at Women Through Art. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-674-39211-6.
- Madsen, Axel. Stanwyck: A Biography. New York: HarperCollins, 1994. ISBN 0-06-017997-X.
- Metzger, Robert P. Reagan: American Icon. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8122-1302-7.
- Muller, Eddie. Dark City: The Lost World of Film Noir. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1998. ISBN 0-312-18076-4.
- Nassour, Ellis and Beth A. Snowberger. "Stanwyck, Barbara". American National Biography Online (subscription only), February 2000. Retrieved: July 1, 2009.
- "The Rumble: An Off-the-Ball Look at Your Favorite Sports Celebrities." New York Post, December 31, 2006. Retrieved: June 16, 2009.
- Schackel, Sandra. "Barbara Stanwyck: Uncommon Heroine." Back in the Saddle: Essays on Western Film and Television Actors. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Publishing, 1998. ISBN 0-7864-0566-X.
- Smith, Ella. Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck. New York: Random House, 1985. ISBN 978-0-517-55695-5.
- Thomson, David. Gary Cooper (Great Stars). New York: Faber & Faber, 2010. ISBN 978-0-86547-932-6.
- Wagner, Robert and Scott Eyman. Pieces of My Heart: A Life. New York: HarperEntertainment, 2008. ISBN 978-0-06137-331-2.
- Wayne, Jane. Life and Loves of Barbara Stanwyck. London: JR Books Ltd, 2009. ISBN 978-1-906217-94-5.
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- Barbara Stanwyck at Virtual History
- That Old Feeling: Ruby in the Rough and The Four Phases of Eve by Richard Corliss for Time Magazine, 2001
- Saluting Stanwyck: A Life On Film Los Angeles Times, 1987
- Lady Be Good – A centenary season of Barbara Stanwyck by Anthony Lane for The New Yorker, 2007
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