Duke of Norfolk

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The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl. The Duke of Norfolk is, moreover, the Earl Marshal and hereditary Marshal of England. The seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel Castle in Sussex, although the title refers to the county of Norfolk. The current Duke of Norfolk is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk. The dukes have historically been Catholic, a state of affairs known as recusancy in England.

All past and present dukes have been descended from Edward I; see Dukes of Norfolk family tree.

Contents

History

John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk (3rd Creation)

Before the Dukes of Norfolk, there were the Bigod Earls of Norfolk, starting with Roger Bigod from Normandy (died 1107). Their male line ended with Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, who died without an heir in 1307, so their titles and estates reverted to the crown. Edward II then created his brother Thomas of Brotherton earl in 1312. It passed to Thomas's daughter Margaret, and then to her grandson Thomas Mowbray.

When King Richard II created Thomas Mowbray duke in 1397, he conferred upon him the estates and titles (including Earl Marshal) that had belonged to the earls. His elderly grandmother Margaret was still alive, and so at the same time she was created Duchess of Norfolk for life. Mowbray died in exile in 1399, some months after his grandmother, and his dukedom was repealed. His widow took the title Countess of Norfolk.<ref>C. Given-Wilson, ‘Mowbray, Thomas (I), first duke of Norfolk (1366–1399)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004</ref>

Between 1401 and 1476, the Mowbray family held the title and estates of the Duke of Norfolk. John Mowbray, the 4th duke, died without male issue in 1476, his only surviving child being the 3-year-old Anne Mowbray. At the age of three, a marriage was arranged between Anne and Richard, Duke of York, the four-year-old son of King Edward IV of England. She remained Richard's child bride until she died at the age of 8.

In accordance with the marriage arrangements, Richard inherited the lands and wealth of the Mowbray family. He was also made Duke of Norfolk. However, upon the death of Edward IV, controversy over the legitimacy arose, as evidence of an earlier marriage on the part of Edward IV emerged. Soon after their father's death Richard, and his brother Edward, were declared illegitimate. Richard was sent to the Tower of London by the new king, Richard III, in mid-1483, thus ending his claim to both York and Norfolk.

For his support of Richard III's claim to the throne, John Howard, the son of Thomas Mowbray's elder daughter Margaret, was created 1st Duke of Norfolk in 1483, in the title's third creation. From this point to the present, the title has remained in the hands of the descendants of John Howard.

The current Duke of Norfolk is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, who succeeded his father, Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk, in 2002.

Duties and other titles

In addition to the title of Duke of Norfolk, the Dukes of Norfolk also hold the hereditary position of Earl Marshal, which has the duty of organizing state occasions such as the state opening of Parliament. For the last five centuries, save some periods when it was under attainder, both the Dukedom and the Earl-Marshalship have been in the hands of the Howard family. According to The House of Lords Act 1999, due to his duties as Earl Marshal, Norfolk is one of only two hereditary peers automatically admitted to the House of Lords, without being elected by the general body of hereditary peers (the other being the Lord Great Chamberlain).

Additionally, the Duke of Norfolk participates in the ceremony of the State Opening of Parliament. He is among the four individuals who precede the monarch, and one of the two of these who walk always facing the sovereign (thus backwards).

As the Earl Marshal, the Duke of Norfolk is head of the College of Arms, through which he regulates all matters connected with armorial bearings and standards, in addition to controlling the arrangements for state functions.

He is one of three claimants to the title of Chief Butler of England.

Arms granted by Richard II to Thomas de Mowbray, I st Duke of Norfolk in 1399

The Duke of Norfolk currently holds the following subsidiary titles:

All titles are in the Peerage of England, save for the Barony of Howard of Glossop which is in the peerage of the United Kingdom. All descend to heirs male except the Barony of Beaumont, which can pass in the female line. The style Earl of Arundel is used as a courtesy title by the Duke's eldest son, the present one of which is Henry Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel. The style Lord Maltravers is used as a courtesy title by the eldest son of the Duke's eldest son (the Duke's grandson).

Coats of arms

Coat of arms of the Howard Dukes of Norfolk

The coat of arms of the Howard Dukes of Norfolk consist of four different elements: the arms (or shield), the crest(s), the supporters, the motto, and the batons of the Earl Marshal. Each will be addressed in turn:

  • The Arms: Quarterly 1st Gules on a Bend between six Cross-crosslets fitchy Argent an Escutcheon Or charged with a Demi-lion rampant pierced through the mouth by an arrow within a Double Tressure flory counterflory of the first (Howard); 2nd Gules three Lions passant gardant in pale Or, Armed and Langued Azure, in chief a Label of three points Argent (Thomas of Brotherton); 3rd Checky Or and Azure (Warenne); 4th Gules a Lion rampant Or, Armed and Langued Azure (Fitzalan).
  • The Crests: 1st On a Chapeau Gules turned up Ermine a Lion statant gardant with tail extended Or gorged with a Ducal Coronet Argent (Thomas of Brotherton); 2nd Issuant from a Ducal Coronet Or a pair of Wings Gules each charged with a Bend between six Cross-crosslets fitchy Argent (Howard); 3rd On a Mount Vert a Horse passant Argent holding in the mouth a Slip of Oak fructed proper (Fitzalan).
  • The Supporters: Dexter a Lion sinister a Horse both Argent the latter holding in his mouth a Slip of Oak Vert fructed proper.
  • The Motto: Sola Virtus Invicta (Virtue alone is unconquered).
  • The Batons: Placed behind the shield two gold Batons in Saltire enamelled at the end Sable (black), which represent the Duke of Norfolk's office as Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England.
Howard Augmentation

Often, the coat of arms of the Duke of Norfolk appears with the Garter circlet of the Order of the Garter surrounding the shield, as seen in the arms of Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk. However, this is not hereditary; the 17th Duke did not become a Knight of the Garter until 22 April 1983. The 18th Duke of Norfolk, Edward William Fitzalan-Howard, Template:As of had not been awarded the Order of the Garter. No order of knighthood is necessarily a component of the coat of arms of the Duke of Norfolk.

The shield on the bend in the first quarter of the arms (shown to the right) was granted as an Augmentation of Honour by Henry VIII to Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Flodden Field. It is a modification of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland. Instead of its normal rampant position, the lion is shown with a rod through its mouth.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

Residences

The main residences commonly associated with the Dukes of Norfolk are: Framlingham Castle, Bungay Castle, as well as Clun Castle in Shropshire, which are now largely ruins; Worksop Manor, Carlton Towers, Norfolk House in London, and most notably Arundel Castle.

Framlingham Castle was originally a part of the properties of the Earls of Norfolk, but when the title fell from use, the castle was administered by the crown. In 1397, it was given to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, by King Richard II. And when the Mowbray line became extinct, it passed eventually to the Howard family. Major repairs to this castle were carried out in 1485 by John Howard. The castle would remain in the Howard family, and thus the Dukes of Norfolk, for a while, but would eventually pass from their possession. In 1553, for example, Framlingham was given to Mary Tudor, sister of King Edward VI.<ref>http://www.castles-abbeys.co.uk/Framlingham-Castle.html</ref>

Bungay Castle was also originally a part of the properties of the Earls of Norfolk. In 1483, it passed into the possession of the Howards, Dukes of Norfolk, and the family continued to own it, apart from brief periods, until the late 20th century. However, the castle has been in a state of decay for quite some time. And for this reason, the 17th Duke of Norfolk, in 1987 presented the castle to the town, which had already begun restoration attempts on its own, with an endowment towards its preservation. It is now owned and administered by the Castle Trust.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Carlton Towers is in Carlton (near Goole), Yorkshire, England. It is a Victorian gothic country house designed by Edward Welby Pugin. It is the Yorkshire home of the Duke of Norfolk. Though the Duke of Norfolk's family still live in part of the house, it is now largely used for wedding receptions and similar events.

The principal seat of the Dukes of Norfolk and their ancestors for over 850 years is Arundel Castle. Built in the 11th Century by Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel, the castle was seized by the crown in 1102. King Henry II, who added on to the castle, in 1155 confirmed William d'Aubigny as Earl of Arundel, with the honour and the castle of Arundel. Arundel Castle is still to this day the home of The Duke and Duchess of Norfolk and their children. The Fitzalan Chapel, founded in 1390 by the 4th Earl of Arundel, is located on the western grounds outside the castle, and has been the burial place of the most recent Dukes of Norfolk.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Glossop as an occasional residence is situated in the High Peak District of Derbyshire. As the family became closely connected with Sheffield, The Farm in Glossop became increasingly used, particularly when Henry Howard lived there in the 1760s; when the fourteenth Duke, enlarged The Farm as an occasional residence; and during the time of the fifteenth Duke, Henry Granville Fitzalan-Howard, who had interest in the activities of the City. The Glossop estate was sold by the family in 1925.

List of titleholders

Duchess of Norfolk (1397)

Created by Richard II of England (for life)
Name Period Spouse Notes Other titles
Margaret
(c. 1320–1398)
1397-1398 widowed Granddaughter of King Edward I Countess of Norfolk


Dukes of Norfolk (1397)

Created by Richard II of England
# Name Period Spouse Notes Other titles
1 Thomas de Mowbray
(1365–1399)
1397-1399 Elizabeth FitzAlan Grandson of Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk; exiled by Henry IV and stripped of the dukedom Earl of Norfolk
Earl of Nottingham
Baron Mowbray
Baron Segrave
2 John de Mowbray
(1392–1432)
1425-1432 Katherine Neville Son of the preceding; restored to the dukedom
3 John de Mowbray
(1415–1461)
1432-1461 Eleanor Bourchier Son of the preceding and an important figure in the Wars of the Roses
4 John de Mowbray
(1444–1476)
1461-1476 Elizabeth de Beauchamp Son of the preceding; died without heirs male

Dukes of Norfolk (1481)

Created by Edward IV of England
# Name Period Spouse Notes Other titles
1 Richard of Shrewsbury
(1473–1483)
1481-1483 Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk Son of Edward IV and son-in-law of the 4th Duke of Norfolk Duke of York
Earl of Norfolk
Earl of Nottingham

Dukes of Norfolk (1483)

Created by Richard III of England
# Name Period Spouse Notes Other titles
1 John Howard
(c. 1425–1485)
1483-1485 widowed Grandson of Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, died at the Battle of Bosworth Field, forfeiting the dukedom Baron Mowbray
2 Thomas Howard
(1443–1524)
1514-1524 Agnes Tilney Son of the preceding, restored to the dukedom Earl of Surrey
Baron Mowbray
3 Thomas Howard
(1473–1554)
1524-1554 Lady Elizabeth Stafford Son of the preceding and uncle of Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, forfeited the dukedom having incurred Henry VIII's disfavour and restored by Mary I
4 Thomas Howard
(1536–1572)
1554-1572 Lady Mary FitzAlan
Margaret Audley
Elizabeth Leyburne
Grandson of the preceding, executed for treason against Elizabeth I, forfeiting the dukedom
5 Thomas Howard
(1627–1677)
1660-1677 unmarried Great-great-grandson of the preceding, restored to the dukedom Earl of Arundel
Earl of Surrey
Earl of Norfolk
Baron Mowbray
Baron Maltravers
Baron Furnivall
6 Henry Howard
(1628–1684)
1677-1684 Jane Bickerton Brother of the preceding Earl of Arundel
Earl of Surrey
Earl of Norfolk
Earl of Norwich
Baron Mowbray
Baron Maltravers
Baron Furnivall
Baron Howard of Castle Rising
7 Henry Howard
(1655–1701)
1684-1701 Mary Mordaunt, 7th Baroness Mordaunt Son of the preceding
8 Thomas Howard
(1683–1732)
1701-1732 Maria Shireburn Nephew of the preceding
9 Edward Howard
(1685–1777)
1732-1777 Mary Blount Brother of the preceding
10 Charles Howard
(1720–1786)
1777-1786 Catherine Brockholes Second cousin of the preceding Earl of Arundel
Earl of Surrey
Earl of Norfolk
Baron Maltravers
11 Charles Howard
(1746–1815)
1786-1815 Frances Scudamore Son of the preceding
12 Bernard Edward Howard
(1765–1842)
1815-1842 widowed Third cousin of the preceding
13 Henry Charles Howard
(1791–1856)
1842-1856 Charlotte Leveson-Gower Son of the preceding
14 Henry Granville Fitzalan-Howard
(1815–1860)
1856-1860 Augusta Lyons Son of the preceding
15 Henry Granville Fitzalan-Howard
(1847–1917)
1860-1917 Lady Flora Abney-Hastings
Gwendolen Constable-Maxwell, 12th Lady Herries of Terregles
Son of the preceding
16 Bernard Marmaduke Fitzalan-Howard
(1908–1975)
1917-1975 Lavinia Strutt Son of the preceding
17 Miles Francis Stapleton Fitzalan-Howard
(1915–2002)
1975-2002 Anne Constable-Maxwell Second cousin once removed of the preceding Earl of Arundel
Earl of Surrey
Earl of Norfolk
Baron Maltravers
Baron Beaumont
Baron Howard of Glossop
18 Edward William Fitzalan-Howard
(b. 1956)
since 2002 Georgina Gore Son of the preceding

The heir apparent is the Duke's eldest son, Henry Miles Fitzalan-Howard, styled Earl of Arundel (b. 1987).

Line of succession

  1. Henry Miles Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey (b. 1987). Eldest son of the present Duke.
  2. Lord Thomas Jack Howard (b. 1992). Second son of the present Duke.
  3. Lord Philip Howard (b. 1996). Third son of the present Duke.
  4. Lord Gerald Bernard Howard (b. 1962). Second son of the 17th Duke.
  5. Arthur Howard (b. 1991). Only son of Lord Gerald Bernard Howard.
  6. Thomas Michael Howard (b. 1952). Eldest son of Lord Michael Howard (1916-2007), second son of Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 3rd Baron Howard of Glossop
  7. Edward Michael Howard (b. 1979). Only son of Thomas Michael Howard.
  8. Richard Andrew Howard (b. 1953). Second son of Lord Michael Howard.
  9. Frederick Peter Howard (b. 1996). Only son of Richard Andrew Howard.
  10. Henry Julian Nicholas Howard (b. 1954). Third son of Lord Michael Howard.
  11. George Henry Howard (b. 1991). Eldest son of Henry Julian Nicholas Howard.
  12. Luke Valentine Howard (b. 1996). Elder twin son of Henry Julian Nicholas Howard.
  13. Milo Nicholas Howard (b. 1996). Twin son of Henry Julian Nicholas Howard.
  14. Alexander Rupert Howard (b. 1964). Fourth son of Lord Michael Howard.
  15. William John Howard (b. 1991). Eldest son of Alexander Rupert Howard.
  16. Edmund Alexander Howard (b. 1998). Second son of Alexander Rupert Howard.
  17. Hugo Michael Howard (b. 2002). Third son of Alexander Rupert Howard.
  18. Philip Bernard Arnold Richard Howard (b. 1963). Only son of Lord Martin Howard (1922-2003), third son of the 3rd Baron Howard of Glossop.
  19. Lord Mark Howard (b. 1934). Youngest son of the 3rd Baron Howard of Glossop.
  20. Henry James Stafford Howard (b. 1972). Great-grandson of Sir Edward Stafford Howard (1851-1916) through his son Stafford Vaughan Howard (1915-1991) and through his son Nicholas Stafford Howard (1937-2008).
  21. Nicholas Emanuel Stafford Howard (b. 2009). Only son of Henry James Stafford Howard.
  22. Murray Bernard Neville Cyprian Howard (b. 1942). Younger son of Stafford Vaughan Howard.
  23. Alexander Philip Wilde Howard (b. 1971). Son of Murray Howard.
  24. Henry Lyulph Howard-Sneyd (b. 1965). Great-grandson of Robert Mowbray Howard (1854-1928), through his son Henry Ralph Mowbray Howard-Sneyd (1883-1950) and through his son Thomas Henry Gavin Howard-Sneyd (1940-2010).
  25. Caspian Lyulph Howard-Sneyd (b. 2004). Elder son of Henry Lyulph Howard-Sneyd.
  26. Rufus Mowbray Howard-Sneyd (b. 2007). Second son of Henry Lyulph Howard-Sneyd.
  27. Justin Andrew Howard-Sneyd (b. 1966). Second son of Thomas Henry Gavin Howard-Sneyd (1940-2010) and younger brother of Henry Lyulph.
  28. Samuel Nigel Hurricane Howard-Sneyd (b. 1998). Son of Justin Andrew Howard-Sneyd.
  29. Philip Esme Howard, 3rd Baron Howard of Penrith (b. 1945). Grandson of the 1st Baron Howard of Penrith.
  30. The Hon. Thomas Philip Howard (b. 1974). Elder son of the 3rd Baron.
  31. The Hon. Michael Barclay Howard (b. 1984). Second son of the 3rd Baron.
  32. The Hon. David Francis Howard (b. 1949). Third son of the 2nd Baron.
  33. The Hon. William John Howard (b. 1953). Fourth son of the 2nd Baron.
  34. Esme Francis Howard (b. 1938). Eldest son of The Hon. Edmund Bernard Carlo Howard (1909-2005), fourth son of the 1st Baron.
  35. Dominic William Howard (b. 1964). Eldest son of Esme Francis Howard.
  36. Stephen Anthony Howard (b. 1966). Second son of Esme Francis Howard.
  37. William Edmund Howard (b. 2000). Only son of Stephen Anthony Howard.
  38. Edmund Philip Howard (b. 1980). Third son of Esme Francis Howard.
  39. John Edmund Howard. Second son of The Hon. Edmund Bernard Carlo Howard.
  40. Francis Hubert Edmund Howard (b. 1985). Son of John Edmund Howard.
  41. Anthony Richard Howard (b. 1947). Third son of The Hon. Edmund Bernard Carlo Howard.
  42. Geoffrey John Bernard Howard (b. 1986). Son of Anthony Richard Howard.

<ref>Thepeerage.com</ref> <ref>Norfolk</ref> <ref>Online Gotha-Norfolk</ref>

Knights of the Garter

12th Duke of Norfolk shown wearing the star and sash of the Order of the Garter.

Many of the Dukes of Norfolk have also been knights of the Order of the Garter. The following list is of those Dukes of Norfolk, along with their year of investiture, that were also Knights of the Order of the Garter across all creations of the title.

Family tree

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See also

Further reading

  • Robinson, John Martin. The Dukes of Norfolk: A Quincentennial History. Oxford University Press, 1982.

References

Template:Reflist

External links

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