Enochian is a name often applied to an occult or angelic language recorded in the private journals of John Dee and his colleague Edward Kelley in late 16th century England. Dee straddled the worlds of science and magic just as they were becoming distinguishable, and Kelley was a spirit medium who worked with Dee in his magical investigations. The men claimed that the language was revealed to them by angels. Some contemporary scholars of magic consider it a constructed language that is nonetheless viable for magical workings, while other scholars of constructed languages simply consider it a very poor imitation of an ancient language, with grammar derived primarily from English.Template:Fact The language is integral to the practice of Enochian magic.
The language found in Dee and Kelley's journals encompasses a limited textual corpus, only some of it with English translations. Several linguists, notably Donald Laycock, have studied Enochian, and argue against any extraordinary features in the language.
Dee's journals did not describe the language as "Enochian", instead preferring descriptors like "Angelical", the "Celestial Speech", the "Language of Angels", the "First Language of God-Christ", the "Holy Language", or "Adamical" because, according to Dee's Angels, it was used by Adam in Paradise to name all things. The term "Enochian" comes from Dee's assertion that the Biblical Patriarch Enoch had been the last human (before Dee and Kelley) to know the language.
According to Tobias Churton in his text The Golden Builders,<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> the concept of an Angelic or antediluvian language was common during Dee's time. If one could speak with angels, it was believed one could directly interact with them.
In 1581, Dee mentioned in his personal journals that God had sent "good angels" to communicate directly with prophets. In 1582, Dee teamed up with the seer Edward Kelley, although Dee had used several other seers previously.<ref>Deborah Harkness, John Dee's Conversations with Angels, 16-17.</ref> With Kelley's help as a scryer, Dee set out to establish lasting contact with the angels. Their work resulted, among other things, in the reception of the Enochian or Angelical language.
According to Dee's journals,<ref>Now in various collections of the British Library. See especially Sloane MSS 3188, 3189 and 3191, and Cotton Appendix XLVI. All the above are available in digital scans at : http://www.themagickalreview.org/enochian/mss/.</ref> Angelical was supposed to have been the language God used to create the world, and which was later used by Adam to speak with God and the angels, and to name all things in existence. After his Fall from Paradise, Adam lost the language and constructed a form of proto-Hebrew based upon his vague memory of Angelical. This proto-Hebrew, then, was the universal human language until the time of the Confusion of Tongues at the Tower of Babel. After this, all the various human languages were developed, including an even more modified Hebrew (which we know as "Biblical Hebrew"). From the time of Adam to the time of Dee and Kelley, Angelical was hidden from humans with the single exception of the patriarch Enoch who, according to the angels, recorded the "Book of Loagaeth" (Speech From God) for humanity. The book was then lost again in the Deluge of Noah.
The reception of Enochian started on March 26, 1583, when Kelley reported visions in the crystal of the twenty-one lettered alphabet characteristic of the language. A few days later, Kelley started receiving what became the first corpus of texts in the purported Angelic language. This resulted in the book Liber Loagaeth ("Book [of] Speech from God"). The book consists of 49 great letter tables, or squares made of 49 by 49 letters (however, each table has a front and back side—making 98 49x49 tables in all).<ref>This book is now in the British Library, MS Sloane 3189.</ref> Dee and Kelley said the angels never bothered translating the texts in this book.
The other set of Enochian texts was received through Kelley about a year later, in Krakow. These are more important since they come with English translations, thus providing the basis for the Enochian vocabulary. The texts comprise 48 poetic verses, which in Dee's manuscripts are called "Claves Angelicae", or "Angelic Keys". The Keys are assigned certain functions within the magical system. Dee was apparently intending to use these Keys to "open the 49 Gates of Wisdom/Understanding" represented by the 49 magic squares in Liber Loagaeth:
- I am therefore to instruct and inform you, according to your Doctrine delivered, which is contained in 49 Tables. In 49 voices, or callings: which are the Natural Keys to open those, not 49 but 48 (for one is not to be opened) Gates of Understanding, whereby you shall have knowledge to move every Gate…<ref>The angel Nalvage, cited in Casaubon ed., A True and Faithful Relation…, p. 77</ref>
- But you shall understand that these 19 Calls are the Calls, or entrances into the knowledge of the mystical Tables. Every Table containing one whole leaf, whereunto you need no other circumstances.<ref>The angel Illemese, cited in Casaubon ed., A True and Faithful Relation…, p. 199)</ref>
While these texts contain most of the vocabulary, dozens of further words are found hidden throughout Dee's journals, and thousands of undefined words are contained in the Liber Loagaeth. Marked stylistic differences between the words in Loagaeth and in the Keys have led some present-day magicians to assume that these represent two different "dialects" of the language Template:Citation needed.
The Enochian script is written from right to left, and may include accents. Different documents have slightly different forms of the script. Some of the letter names are pronounced as they would be in English, but many are pronounced differently. The Enochian letters have English letter equivalents.<ref name="alphabet">Template:Cite web</ref> A number of different fonts for the Enochian alphabet are available, which use the English letter equivalents to access the Enochian glyphs.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Skeptical and linguistic evaluations
Skeptics have pointed to this discrepancy between the two revealed sets of Enochian texts as an indication that Enochian is not a consistent language.<ref>See Donald Laycock, "Enochian: Angelic language or mortal folly?", 19-64 in The Complete Enochian Dictionary.</ref> For instance, it has been noted, especially by the Australian linguist Donald Laycock, that the texts in the Loagaeth material show phonetic features that do not generally appear in natural languages.<ref>Laycock, "Enochian: Angelic language or mortal folly?", p.33.</ref> Rather, the features shown are commonly found in instances of glossolalia, suggesting that Kelley actually produced at least this set of writings via "speaking in tongues."
Building on Laycock’s linguistic analysis, skeptics also point out that there are even problems with holding that the texts of the Enochian keys represent a genuine natural language. It is observed that the syntax of the Enochian calls is almost identical with that of English.<ref name="Laycock p43">Laycock, p. 43.</ref> Also, the very scant evidence of Enochian verb conjugation seems quite reminiscent of English, more so than with Semitic languages as Hebrew or Arabic, which Dee claimed were debased versions of the original Angelic language.<ref name="Laycock p43" /> There are only two known verbs with conjugations, one of which, "to be," is highly irregular.<ref>http://skepsis.no/?p=552</ref> While some phonetic features of Enochian show a connection to glossolalia, others show similarities to the English language. Both languages have soft and hard consonants such as c and g, and combine s and h to make the sh sound.
As for the semantics of Enochian, addition similarities to English have been found. For example, luciftias, a term meaning brightness, may very possibly have a connection to Lucifer, whose name means "light bringer." Londoh, a word meaning kingdom, may have come from Dee's admiration for the Queen of England. These and other examples have led skeptics to believe that many of these terms are derived from notions that would have been contemporary in Dee and Kelley's time.
Enochian in popular culture
- In Platinum Games' action game Bayonetta, spells and certain bits of dialogue are in Enochian.<ref name="PlatinumGames Inc. Developer Blog">Template:Cite web</ref>
- The final spell in The Black Mirror point-and-click horror adventure game and its sequel Black Mirror II is in Enochian.
- The vocal sections of the soundtrack of Dante's Inferno are sung in Enochian.
- Some clues left by John Dee in Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception are written in Enochian text.
Anton LaVey included nineteen of the Enochian Keys, in the original and in English translation, in his The Satanic Bible, a manual for Satanists written in 1969. LaVey edited this translation to fit in with the Satanic Bible by creating a Satanic theme in his English and Enochian translations, though these were taken from Aleister Crowley.
(Alphabetical by artist)
- The Finnish band Aarni has released one song in Enochian: "All Along The Watchtowers".
- The Russian band Dvar write their lyrics in Enochian.
- Impaled Nazarene has some songs and album titles in Enochian: Tol Cormpt Norz Norz Norz ("Thy shall all be marked 666") and I Al Purg Vonpo ("Flames, the burning wrath").
- In the song "Golden Dawn" from their third studio album The Land of Rape and Honey, industrial metal band Ministry sampled English occultist Aleister Crowley reciting "the Call of the Second Aethyr" in Enochian.
- The Swedish symphonic metal band Therion used the Enochian word for dragon ("vovin") as the title of their 1998 album, Vovin.
- "Faaip de Oiad", which means "Voice of God" in Enochian, is the 13th and final track on Tool's third studio album, Lateralus.
(Alphabetical by author)
- Black Library's Horus Heresy series novel set in the Warhammer 40,000 universe, titled A Thousand Sons, by Graham McNeil, references the Enochian language. Scribe to the Primarch Magnus, Mahavastu Kallimakus, was reported to have written numerous entries in Magnus' grimoire in an unknown language. Fellow remembrancer Lemual Gaumon recognizes the writings as Enochian but admits to not having the translation key. It is later mentioned that the Thousand Sons Space Marines have the translation key intact on their homeworld of Prospero.
- In John Connolly's 2009 novel The Lovers, the two evil angels Anmael and Semjaza each have a letter tattooed or burned on one arm (Un for Anmael and Fam for Semjaza, although Connolly misidentifies Un as "Und"). Each one also leaves his or her letter carved on or near a victim.
- Sir Terry Pratchett's Discworld series uses English, written with Enochian letters as a cipher alphabet, as the language of the Golems.
- Cotten Stone of the Cotten Stone thriller novels, by authors Lynn Sholes and Joe Moore, can speak Enochian because she is the daughter of Furmiel, a fallen angel. Template:Citation needed
- Charles Stross' The Laundry series uses Enochian as a magical programming language.
- In the 1997 comic book/graphic novel Manga Shi (comics) and Vampirella crossover, the former steals an artifact worn by the latter and discovers that it bears an Enochian inscription which reads simply, "I will always love you, mother."
Television and movies
- In season five of the television series Angel, recurring villain Lindsey McDonald has symbols derived from Enochian tattooed on his body to avoid detection by any means other than the naked eye, including the powers of the Senior Partners. Later in the same season, his lover Eve hides out in a house with the same symbols painted on the walls.
- In the anime Hetalia, England is shown casting an Enochian curse on Germany, describing it as his secret weapon.
- In the 2010 movie Legion, the tattoos on the body of Michael, and later on Jeep's body, are Enochian.<ref>http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1038686/trivia</ref>
- Several episodes of Supernatural feature references to Enochian. Castiel, an angel, etches Enochian sigils into the ribs of Sam and Dean Winchester to hide them from the sight of both angels and demons. According to Castiel, the phrase 'you breed with the mouth of a goat' is funnier in Enochian.
- In television, The Simpsons episode with "Sideshow Bob" satirizes a Republican party gathering where the participants greet each other with an Enochian call, as identified by the writers and producers on the DVD commentary.
- In the anime Yu-Gi-Oh!, a card called "The Seal of Orichalcos" is used prominently during the fourth season of the second-series anime. The letters on the Seal are in Enochian, spelling "Oreichalcos". In the original Japanese airing, the card's name and lore are also written in Enochian, the latter spelling out a message in romanized Japanese.
- Enochian linguistics
- Enochian-English dictionary from www.sacred-texts.com
- Freeware Enochian Analysis Software, Windows by Juriaan Massenza
- Enochian Dictionary (list of known translated Enochian Words)