Total quality management

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Total quality management or TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes.<ref>Ahire, S. L. 1997. Management Science- Total Quality Management interfaces: An integrative framework. Interfaces 27 (6) 91-105.</ref>

TQM is based on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services offered by an organization, requiring the involvement of management, workforce, suppliers, and customers, to meet or exceed customer expectations.

Cua, McKone, and Schroeder (2001) identified nine common TQM practices:<ref>Cua, K. O., K. E. McKone, and R. G. Schroeder. 2001. Relationships between implementation of TQM, JIT, and TPM and manufacturing performance. Journal of Operations Management 19 (6) 675-694.</ref>

  1. cross-functional product design
  2. process management
  3. supplier quality management
  4. customer involvement
  5. information and feedback
  6. committed leadership
  7. strategic planning
  8. cross-functional training
  9. employee involvement


TQM and Six Sigma

The TQM concept was developed by a number of American management consultants, including W. Edwards Deming, Joseph M. Juran, and Armand V. Feigenbaum.<ref>'How to Build Quality,' Economist, September 23, 1989, 91-92.'</ref> Originally, these consultants won few converts in the United States. However, managers in and even named their premier annual prize for manufacturing excellence after Deming.

The Six Sigma management strategy originated in 1986 from Motorola’s drive towards reducing defects by minimizing variation in processes.<ref>Anand, G., P. T. Ward, and M. V. Tatikonda. 2010. Role of explicit and tacit knowledge in six sigma projects: An empirical examination of differential project success. Journal of Operations Management 28 (4) 303-315.</ref>

The main difference between TQM and Six Sigma (a newer concept) is the approach.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> At its core, Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction.

In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services and the culture in which they work.

The methods for implementing this approach come from people such as Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa and Joseph M. Juran.

TQM and Performance for SMEs: Research Project

The concept of quality in general and Total Quality Management (TQM) in particular has been the subject of several marketing and management research insofar as it is considered as a means to understand and meet the expectations of consumers (Pun, 2002). <ref>W.G. Lewis, K.F. Pun and T.R.M. Lall (2006), « Exploring soft versus hard factors for TQM implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises », International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 55, No. 7., pp. 539-554.</ref>

For Chin et al. 2001, TQM is an inclusive approach whose aim is to pursue customer satisfaction. This purpose has generated a growing interest in various sectors of economy such as manufacturing, services, Government and education in different countries around the world.

The BI++ Methodology

The BI++ Methodology is an innovative solution developed in Switzerland by Mr Bruno CIROUSSEL, CEO of Business Investigation SA, and whose purpose is to link strategic missions of the enterprise with performance management.

1) the definition of a structured decision-making nomenclature between strategic missions, pilot objectives and business management-defined performance indicators.

2) The management performance and risk the more close to their evolution, with a real capacity to measure and investigate this decision modeling in connection with the flow of information.

3) The establishment of alarms in case business abnormality detected, and offers the possibility to simulate and optimize the performance of. In accordance with the basic principles of the TQM (Leadership, management of staff, policy and strategy, resource management and...)

In accordance with the basic principles of the TQM (Leadership, management of staff, policy and strategy, management of resources and partnerships, processes, Customer Satisfaction, Satisfaction of employees, Integration into the life of the community, continuous improvement) and following the BI++ Methodology, a model will be developed for 3 different business sectors. With a BI++ performance management is the ability to model, measure and interpret the performance and exposure to the risks of the objectives and actions implemented.

This measurement is performed using three categories of indicators:

  • RESULTS indicators
  • KNOW-HOW control flags
  • MEANS indicators

After the development of TQM models for the three sectors, simply connect BI++ to different sources of information flows that exist in the company to be able to release the results and begin the management of the overall performance of the Organization and therefore to measure the real impact of TQM on performance.

See also



Further reading


  • Deming, W. Edwards. Out of the Crisis (1986)
  • Ishikawa, Kaoru. What is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way (1985)
  • Feigenbaum, A.V. Total Quality Control (1991)
  • Juran, J.M. Juran on Leadership for Quality: An Executive Handbook (1989)
  • Template:Cite book

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